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Smoking and the digestive tract

Cigarette smoking is linked to a number of degenerative disorders that are potentially fatal, including heart disease, lung cancer, and emphysema. Inhaling smoke causes alterations to all sections of the body, including the digestive system, and one of those parts is the respiratory system. Because the digestive system is responsible for converting the nutrients found in food into those that the body needs to survive, and because smoking impairs the digestive system’s capacity to operate properly, this fact can have major implications for one’s health.

At the time of this writing, estimates suggest that around one-third of all individuals are smokers. Furthermore, although smoking rates among adult men appear to be declining, smoking rates among adult women and teenage boys and girls appear to be increasing. What kind of effects does smoking have on one’s digestive system?

What kind of effects does smoking have on the digestive system?

The digestive tract is subject to a wide variety of adverse consequences caused by smoking, which can ultimately lead to a number of diseases. The available evidence suggests that these include the following:

  • preventing the production of mucus, which is a material that contributes to the protection of the intestinal tract against inflammation and infections
  • modifying the make-up of the mucous
  • resulting in an imbalance in the bacterial community of the gut between strains that are healthy and ones that are detrimental
  • a rise in the number of cells that die in the tissue that lines the intestine
  • resulting in an increase in inflammation

Mechanism of smoking effects on the digestive tract

Heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease (also known as GERD) are two of the most frequent disorders that affect the digestive system. Smoking can play a role in the development or progression of these conditions. When a person smokes, the lower esophageal sphincter can become more relaxed as a result of the habit. This muscle, which is located between the esophagus and the stomach, prevents the contents of the stomach, such as acids that are designed to break down food, from flowing back into the esophagus. 

It is possible for stomach contents to reflux into the esophagus when the lower esophageal sphincter becomes weakened. This can result in heartburn and may also cause damage to the lining of the esophagus.

Adverse effects of smoking on the digestive tract

Peptic ulcer

Peptic ulcers are just one of the many negative effects smoking can have on the digestive system. Peptic ulcers are more likely to occur in smokers. Peptic ulcers, also known as stomach ulcers or duodenal ulcers, are sores that develop on the lining of the stomach or duodenum. They are most usually brought on by an infection that is brought on by the growth of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). According to a number of studies, smoking substantially reduces the healing process of peptic ulcers, significantly raises the probability that peptic ulcers will return, and significantly raises the risk of getting H. pylori infection.

The link between smoking and liver disease

According to research conducted in the year 2020, some of the negative consequences of smoking on the liver include the following. 

  • People who have chronic hepatitis infections may have a higher risk of developing liver cancer at an earlier stage.
  • Chronic liver disease, also known as long-term liver disease, may have a connection to the increasing fibrosis of the liver. Scar tissue is what forms when an organ is damaged, which can lead to the condition known as fibrosis.
  • Because of the detrimental impact on lung function, an individual may no longer qualify as a candidate for a liver transplant. An increase in the likelihood of some risks that are linked to liver transplantation is possible.

Peptic ulcers are linked to smoking.

An ulcer in the lining of the stomach or the duodenum, the first section of the small intestine that links to the stomach, is known medically as a peptic ulcer. According to research from Trusted Source, smoking raises both the risk of developing peptic ulcers and the likelihood that they will recur.

This apparent correlation could be the result of a number of different things. According to some study, these may include an increased risk of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a bacterial infection that is the primary cause of peptic ulcers, as well as an increase in the amount of acid that is secreted by the stomach.

Smoking and digestion disorders 

There is a correlation between smoking and the following digestive conditions:

  • Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory condition that affects the lining of the digestive tract. This condition can result in abdominal pain as well as diarrhea. People who smoke and have Crohn’s disease have a higher risk of having additional surgeries, experiencing relapses, and requiring immunosuppressive treatment, which consists of anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • Tobacco use can cause reflux by weakening the sphincter that separates the stomach and the esophagus (also known as the food pipe). This can lead to the backward movement of stomach contents into the esophagus, which can induce heartburn in some people. Additionally, it causes the sphincter that separates the stomach and the duodenum to become less effective.
  • Cancers: According to the findings of several studies, smoking is a factor in the development of numerous types of cancer that can occur in the digestive tract. Cancers of the esophagus, pancreas, and colon are included in this category.
  • Chronic inflammation, which is produced by smoking, is one of the underlying causes, and one of the underlying causes may be genetic changes that contribute to the growth of tumors. It’s also possible that the wide variety of chemicals that cause cancer that are found in cigarette smoke are to blame.
  • A study published in 2020 found that smoking was associated with an increased risk of polyp growth in the colon. Polyps are growths that project into the bowel and have been linked to an increased risk of colon cancer.

Cigarette use is linked to gallstones.

A number of studies have found a correlation between smoking and an increased risk of developing gallstones. Gallstones are formed when liquid that has been held in the gallbladder solidifies and becomes a substance that is similar to stones. These can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a stone in size.

Cigarette use and the development of stomach and colon cancer

Tobacco use increases the likelihood of developing cancer of the oral cavity, the lip, the voice box, the esophagus, the stomach, the pancreas, the liver, the colon, and the rectum.

Strategies for giving up smoking

The following are some strategies that can help you kick the habit of smoking:

  • Utilizing self-help initiatives, such as helplines and community programs, is an example of what is meant by “self-help.”
  • Behavioral therapies and counseling are both included in the scope of counseling. It can take many different forms.
  • An atypical antidepressant known by the brand name Zyban, bupropion works to lessen cravings.
  • Chantix, also known as varenicline, is a medicine that lessens the pleasurable effects of smoking.
  • Nicotine replacement therapy is a choice that can be made in a number of different formats, including lozenges and patches. It helps alleviate the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal by acting as a partial replacement for the nicotine that smokers would normally obtain from cigarettes.
  • Combinations: Some doctors will recommend combining different medications, while others will recommend combining therapy with medication.

Takeaway

Pain and discomfort can be caused in the abdominal region as a result of smoking due to the various adverse effects that smoking can have on the stomach and other organs of the digestive tract.

Ulcers and Crohn’s disease are two illnesses that may be made worse by the harmful effects of smoking. Additionally, it is linked to an increased risk of developing cancer in multiple organs of the digestive tract. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cigarette smoke causes damage to practically all organs in the body, which results in a general decline in the health of smokers.

It may be possible to alleviate the symptoms of certain diseases or prevent them from becoming worse if you give up smoking. However, this does not usually completely reverse the problem that was caused by smoking in the first place.

References:

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5797634/
  2. https://badgut.org/information-centre/a-z-digestive-topics/smoking-and-the-digestive-tract/
  3. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/can-smoking-cause-stomach-pain
  4. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/smoking-and-the-digestive-system 

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